(Updated for 2017)
We probably don’t have to tell you the costs of volunteering and studying abroad add up quickly. Between plane tickets, travel insurance, and program fees, the financial costs of traveling abroad make planning your once-in-a-lifetime trip less fun and quite overwhelming.
That's why we've put together the most comprehensive resource for volunteer abroad and study abroad scholarships and grants, including our very own Volunteer Forever Travel Scholarship! Read below for 200great scholarship and grant opportunities to make your dream of volunteering or studying abroad come true.
200 Travel Scholarships and Grants to Volunteer, Teach, and Study Abroad
As you know by now, volunteering and studying abroad can be expensive. Organizations like International Volunteer HQ offer extremely affordable placements abroad for travelers, with programs starting from only $180 per week. However, you still will need to budget for airfare, travel insurance, and other travel-related expenses, which can become costly for those on a shoestring budget. The same applies to other affordably-priced programs through organizations such as Plan My Gap Year, Maximo Nivel (top-rated on Volunteer Forever), or Love Volunteers.
Volunteering with award-winningGlobal Vision International, which is one of the largest and most established volunteer organizations in the world (along with being one of the most highly rated on our site) with 2,000 volunteers per year, may cost $2,000 or more for the program fee.
That’s where Volunteer Forever comes in. As you plan your travels, try to combine crowdfuding through Volunteer Forever with one of the many scholarships and grants outlined below. Each one of these opportunities is open to travelers wanting to better themselves and help the communities that host them. Not only can you greatly offset your trip costs by combining these two options, but by highlighting your crowdfunding efforts in your scholarship application you’ll demonstrate to the scholarship committee that you’re committed to the cause—whether it’s to volunteer in an underserved community, or to further your studies in another country.
For example, one way you can demonstrate the impact and importance of your volunteer or study abroad placement is to travel with an organization that’s dedicated to helping you achieve your academic or career goals, such as Maximo Nivel. Right now, Maximo Nivel offers a wide variety of impactful and educational placements for students and travelers from all backgrounds - you can earn university credit through Maximo Nivel’s study abroad programs, gain insight into your future career through an impactful internship abroad, and even earn the President’s Volunteer Service Award by volunteering on one of Maximo Nivel’s many programs in Latin America.
Furthermore, keep in mind that many of scholarships we have listed below only have one or two winners per year. You'll definitely want to make sure you have back-up funding in case you're not one of the chosen few who receive an award. Fortunately, there are amazing, affordable organizations like International Volunteer HQ, with service opportunities all over the world that won’t break the bank. International Volunteer HQ is currently offering an all-expenses paidTeach and Volunteer Abroad Scholarship that will cover a sponsored two-week volunteer project in one of 35 locations, a $1,000 travel voucher from STA travel, a volunteer travel insurance package from World Nomads, and an internationally-recognized TEFL course from CCELT Online.
Here are more than 200 scholarships (including the Volunteer Forever Travel Schlolarship) for mission trips and grants to help you volunteer, teach, or study abroad—read on to find the best option for your travel goals.
If you're looking for tips for getting free airfare or finding no-cost volunteer projects, learn how you can volunteer abroad for free.
We've also identified several volunteer organizations that offer cheap volunteer projects such as Plan My Gap Year, which offers extremely affordable volunteer adventures starting from only $225 for a one-week trip - and with complete transparency on their program costs, you’ll know exactly where your payment is going when you sign up with PMGY. Other affordable organizations include International Volunteer HQ (which we previously mentioned), Agape Volunteers, which offers volunteer abroad experiences in Africa starting at $510 for two weeks, and Volunteering Solutions, which offers volunteer and intern abroad experiences in 20+ countries starting at $200 for one week.
Lastly, consider a paid teaching opportunity, such as the i-to-i Paid Teaching placement, in which participants are provided a monthly stipend and accomodations to Teach English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) in Thailand, China, and Vietnam.
GENERAL VOLUNTEER ABROAD SCHOLARSHIPS AND GRANTS
VOLUNTEER FOREVER TRAVEL SCHOLARSHIP
Volunteer Forever has awarded travel scholarships since 2014 and will award its next scholarship in the fall of 2017 - click here to apply now. Participants in volunteer abroad, study abroad, intern abroad, teach abroad, and work abroad programs are invited to apply. For our past scholarships, we had hundreds of applicants from great volunteer programs such as International Volunteer HQ, Global Vision International, and many others.
Scholarship winners directly receive the proceeds and may use their scholarship for their program fee, airfare, travel insurance, or other trip expenses. The scholarship is open to residents of the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the European Union.
It is recommended that scholarship applicants start a Volunteer Forever fundraising campaign, though a Volunteer Forever account is not required to apply. We also recommend that applicants already be accepted to a volunteer, intern, or teach abroad program when they apply. If you're still looking for a program, we recommend checking out Global Vision International (our top recommended program for first-time volunteers) and our best rated program, Maximo Nivel, which offers affordable volunteer programs in Latin America starting at just $595:
APPLY NOW: Best the first to apply for our next scholarship award in Fall 2017 (deadline September 30th, 2017)
IVHQ VOLUNTEER ABROAD SCHOLARSHIPS
IVHQ offers four Volunteer Abroad Scholarships every year that includes a sponsored two-week IVHQ volunteer program, a $1,000 travel voucher from STA Travel, and a World Nomads travel insurance package. These scholarships include IVHQ's Teach and Volunteer Abroad Scholarship, Medical Volunteer Abroad Scholarship, Travel Blogger Scholarship, and Volunteer of the Year Scholarship.
Learn more and stay in the loop about future scholarship opportunities through IVHQ at: https://www.volunteerhq.org/ivhq-scholarships/
TRAVEL FOR GOOD VOLUNTOURISM GRANT
Since 2007, Travelocity has offered volunteer travelers $5,000 grants through their Travel for Good program. This voluntourism grant allows travelers to serve abroad with one of Travelocity’s trusted partners—currently the American Hiking Society, Cross-Cultural Solutions, the Earthwatch Institute, and GlobeAware—for a few days to a few months. The funds cover project and transportation costs, with grants offered to four winners each year.
Learn more: http://www.travelocity.com/c/content/site/en/TRAVELOCITY/public-relations/microsite/travel-for-good/voluntourism-grants.html
AMERICA’S UNOFFICIAL AMBASSADORS (AUA) MOSAIC GRANT
The AUA Mosaic Grant ranges from $500 to $1,000 for placement in Indonesia, Morocco, Tajikistan, and Zanzibar. Through this program, travelers may volunteer for six weeks during the summer with a school or NGO in Muslim-majority country. Projects focus on education, health, community building, and people-to-people partnerships, with a long-term goal of bringing service experience back home to impact travelers’ own communities as well.
Learn more: http://unofficialambassadors.com/our-programs/aua-mosaic-scholarship/
GO OVERSEAS VOLUNTEER ABROAD SCHOLARSHIP
Go Overseas offers two $500 scholarships for volunteers to travel abroad in the spring and fall each year—travelers are invited to volunteer with any organization of their choosing, or even craft a custom trip with a local NGO that inspires them. The award is (most often) distributed directly to the volunteer organization itself, which ensures that the funds are used entirely for the project.
Learn more: http://www.gooverseas.com/volunteer-abroad-scholarship-application
THE SAMUEL HUNTINGTON PUBLIC SERVICE AWARD
The Samuel Huntington Public Service Award provides a stipend of $10,000—$15,000 for a graduating college senior to volunteer for one year, either alone or with an established organization (charitable, religious, education, governmental, or other public service), anywhere in the world. The group guarantees one award each year but often have two or three winners. Applicants must submit a proposal by January 18, 2014 that encompasses any activity that furthers the public good.
For more information, visit: http://goo.gl/7hqHRGYOUTH CHALLENGE INTERNATIONAL FLIGHT SCHOLARSHIPS
Youth Challenge International (YCI) is offering a one-time offer of twelve flights for volunteers participating in our youth development projects in Ghana and Tanzania this Winter (January 1 to March 31, 2014 departure dates). Projects focus on livelihoods, health, leadership and the environment with the vision of youth innovation driving positive change (i.e. youth volunteering abroad projects).
Eligible volunteer projects for the flight scholarships are 8-weeks in Tanzania or 4-weeks in Ghana.
Read more: http://www.yci.org/html/who/full_story.asp?item=4126
SARAH’S WISH SCHOLARSHIP FUND
Sara’s Wish Foundation scholarships are awarded to young American women who exhibit qualities of leadership, service, and adventure. Formed to honor the memory of college student Sara Christie Schewe, who was killed in a bus crash in India during a semester abroad, the scholarship defrays the costs associated with traveling to all areas of the globe. Recipients perform public services, contributing to the welfare of the world. Applications are available online October 1 though March 1, and typical awards are $1,500—$2,000.
Read more: http://goo.gl/m0EsEQ
RUSTIC PATHWAYS SCHOLARSHIPS
Rustic Pathways offers more than 100 scholarships for student travelers and educators each year. Their Service Scholarship is a competitive scholarship available to first-time Rustic travelers in need of financial aid to cover all or part of their program fee. If you’re traveling on a gap year, check out Rustic Pathways’ Gap Year Scholarship, which is open to students who are at least 17 years old and have either fulfilled all graduation requirements, or have graduated by the time their gap year begins. This scholarship is applicable to one semester of travel.
If you’re the parent of a student traveler, and you’re a full-time employee (teacher, administrator, coach, or other staff) of an educational institution, check out Rustic Pathways’ Teacher Appreciation Program, which offers discounts of up to 30% on almost all of this organization’s student summer programs.
SKILLS- AND DEGREE-BASED VOLUNTEER ABROAD SCHOLARSHIPS AND GRANTS
BUILD ABROAD TRAVEL SCHOLARSHIP
Founded in 2010, Build Abroad has a mission of building and repairing communities worldwide through socially responsible construction volunteering, with projects focusing on homes, schools, and disaster relief. This organization offers one travel scholarship each year to a student or recent graduate in architecture, civil engineering, interior design, or a related field. This award covers a one-week stay at any of Build Abroad’s five locations in Latin America or Asia, and includes airport pickup, pre-departure support, housing, two meals per day, in-country support, an organized construction volunteering project, and access to a volunteer center with free wifi.
More information about the scholarship and how to apply is available at: https://www.buildabroad.org/travel-scholarship
KATIE EVANS MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP (NEW!)
Since 1995, the Foundation for Sustainable Development (FSD) has trained and supported students to collaborate on significant health projects with our community partners around the world. To support advancement of our partners’ community health programs and to honor the legacy of Katie Evans, we are pleased to offer the Katie Evans Memorial Scholarship for Winter and Spring programs for graduate public health students. In 2014, FSD will award Katie Evans Memorial Scholarships of $3000 to public health graduate students pursuing FSD international internships and public health volunteer abroad placements. Alumni of FSD internships have won Rhodes, Fulbright, and other merit-based scholarships; gained employment with international development organizations; and started their own development organizations.
More information for participants seeking public health volunteer abroad projects is available at: http://www.fsdinternational.org/apply/scholarship
ACDI/VOCA VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES
Agricultural Cooperative Development International and Volunteers in Overseas Cooperative Assistance (ACDI/VOCA) seeks expert volunteers to support its international development activities in business, agriculture, banking and financial services, marketing, cooperative and association development, food processing, and community development. Current or recent graduate students in the areas of business, agriculture, and international studies are eligible to participate throughout Africa, Middle East, Asia and Latin America. Assignments usually last from two to four weeks, and volunteers contribute their time and expertise while ACDI/VOCA pays for all assignment-related expenses. These include round-trip coach airfare, passport, visas, lodging, meals and incidentals, immunizations, supplemental health insurance, and even emergency medical evacuation if required.
More information is available at: http://goo.gl/d8XLPo
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC GLIMPSE CORRESPONDENTS PROGRAM
Emerging, talented writers, photographers, and filmmakers may apply to the Glimpse Graduate Program, a one-year intensive program at MatadorU. The Correspondents Program, funded in in part by National Geographic Society, requires students to agree to a long-term investigative journalism focus area or project whether at home or while living abroad. This program provides a $600 stipend, as well as a professional editor, career training in writing and photography, and guaranteed publication on glimpse.org. In addition, correspondents may be published on National Geographic platforms. The 10-week program is open to anyone ages 18 to 34.
Visit the Correspondents Page to find out more: http://goo.gl/SJsfY5
OMPRAKASH AMBASSADOR TRAVEL GRANT
The Omprakash Ambassador Travel Grant pays for travel and living expenses for entrepreneurial individuals who want to volunteer abroad within its international network of grassroots health, education, and environmental partner organizations. Omprakash Ambassadors also are enrolled in Omprakash EdGE (Education through Global Engagement), the group’s online curriculum that explores ethics, economics and power dynamics that underlie cross-cultural volunteering and international aid. Travel Grant applications are open to all, regardless of age or nationality, and reviewed seasonally.
Learn more: http://goo.gl/dQ5hZU
VOLUNTEERS FOR PROSPERITY (VFPServ)
Skilled Americans wishing to volunteer abroad may seek grants from Volunteers for Prosperity, which offers a dollar-for-dollar match up to $1,000, to offset travel, insurance, and local living costs of short-term international assignments. A public-private partnership of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), VFPServ accepts applications from working professionals in a project within their field.
If you’re a professional and want to use your skills to help people in developing countries, contact VFPServ: http://goo.gl/y9wDN6
WorldTeach offers a variety of scholarships—read on to learn more:
$100 to $600 scholarships are available for current year-long volunteers who want to extend their service for a second year. Most often, these scholarships can cover health insurance costs. Current WorldTeach volunteers should email their program managers to apply.
The Kristin Linnea Skvarla Foundation offers $1,000 scholarships to WorldTeach volunteers accepted to the Namibia Year Program. Once accepted into the program, travelers may email their program managers with information about why they need additional funding; smaller scholarships also are available for the Namibia Semester and Namibia Summer programs.
Volunteers interested in the China Summer program are encouraged to submit an essay with their application explaining why they would like funding to complete the program—this scholarship starts at $500.
Certified teachers may apply for $3,000 scholarships for the Namibia Year and Tanzania Year projects, through the WorldTeach Teacher Fellowship program. One grant is awarded per year for each program.
Learn more: http://www.worldteach.org
STUDY ABROAD SCHOLARSHIPS AND GRANTS
CRITICAL LANGUAGE SCHOLARSHIPS
The U.S. Department of State offers intensive summer language institutes in 13 foreign languages in order to expand the number of Americans studying and mastering critical foreign languages. The CLS Program supports beginning, intermediate, and advanced level study in Azerbaijani, Bangla/Bengali, Hindi, Indonesian, Korean, Punjabi, Turkish and Urdu. Advanced beginning and intermediate level study is available in Arabic and Persian, while intermediate to advanced level programs are available in Chinese, Japanese, and Russian. Awards cover round-trip travel between the student's home city and program location, a mandatory Washington, D.C. pre-departure orientation, applicable visa fees, room, board, group-based intensive language instruction, program-sponsored travel within country, and all entrance fees for CLS Program cultural enhancement activities. Applicants must be U.S. citizens enrolled in a U.S. degree-granting program at the undergraduate or graduate level.
More information is available at: http://goo.gl/qsLnrd
THE TORTUGA BACKPACKS STUDY ABROAD SCHOLARSHIP
The founders of Tortuga Backpacks, Fred and Jeremy, experienced the transformative power of travel on a backpacking trip to Eastern Europe. Frustrated by their luggage options, they started their own backpack company. Now they want to give college students the same opportunity they had.
The Tortuga Backpacks Study Abroad Scholarship is awarded biannually to students interested in exploring the world. The scholarship is for $1,000 towards any study abroad program. Interested students can apply here: http://www.tortugabackpacks.com/pages/study-abroad-scholarship
DAVID L. BOREN SCHOLARSHIP AND FELLOWSHIP
The Boren scholarship, a National Security Education Program award, is for students interested in learning a foreign language, studying abroad, and adding an international element to their education. This scholarship provides undergraduates with up to $20,000 for an academic year's study abroad, while the Boren Fellowship provides graduates up to $30,000 for language study and international research in the study of world regions critical to U.S. interests, including Africa, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, Eurasia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East.
For more information: http://goo.gl/pw4zBZ
FREEMAN AWARDS FOR STUDY IN ASIA
Freeman Awards for Study in Asia (Freeman-ASIA) scholarships benefit U.S. undergraduates with financial aid providing them with funds to study abroad in East or Southeast Asia. Need-based funding assists recipients with study-abroad program costs and related expenses, including airfare, basic living costs, local transportation and books. Awards range from $3,000 for a summer program, $5,000 for a semester or quarter program, to $7,000 for an academic year program.
For more information on the Freeman Award: http://goo.gl/9nbhL4
GILMAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM
The Gilman International Scholarship Program aims to diversify U.S. undergraduate students who study abroad and the countries and regions where they go by providing awards of up to $5,000 for one academic year. The program serves under-represented students with high financial need, and all applicants must be recipients of a Federal Pell Grant
Learn more: http://goo.gl/vU2ljR
NATIONAL SECURITY EDUCATION PROGRAM
The National Security Education Program encourages students to internationalize their educational resumes by offering U.S. undergraduates scholarship opportunities to study abroad. Its goal is to help equip students with language skills and cultural understanding resulting in successful careers—the application deadline is January 2014.
More information: http://goo.gl/XDm3gz
The Rotary Foundation offers multiple grants and fundraising support for a variety of projects, scholarships, and training for Rotarians around the world. Rotary clubs and districts offer their own scholarships as well, funded with district grants. Applicants may request assistance for any form of global study. Packaged grant scholarships also are available from Rotary and its partners for scholars in the fields of nursing and water and sanitation.
For general information on the Rotary Foundation’s programs: http://goo.gl/VK7S7c
SCHOOL FOR INTERNATIONAL TRAINING (SIT) SCHOLARSHIPS
SIT Study Abroad supports international opportunities for students through its scholarship and grant programs. Many SIT scholarships and grants are available for both terms of study: semester and summer. Individual awards generally range from $500 to $5,000. Below is a list of various SIT Scholarships—learn more at: http://goo.gl/7DdrCS
The Compton Fund: For students enrolled in SIT programs with environmental, post-conflict transformation, or sustainable development themes.
SIT Engineering Scholarship: For students enrolled in undergraduate engineering programs who have demonstrated financial need.
The Experiment in International Living (EIL) Alumni Study Abroad Scholarship: To recognize and support alumni of EIL summer high school programs.
The Houston International Scholarship: For undergraduate students in any field or major from Houston, Texas, and surrounding areas.
HBCU Scholarships: For students enrolled at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).
IHP Grant: Need-based grant assistance for students participating on an IHP /Comparative program.
The Middle East and Islamic Studies Scholarship: For students participating in programs with significant Middle Eastern and/or Islamic studies content.
The Richard & Dale Levy India Scholarship: For a student participating on a semester program in India.
Sally Bragg Baker Scholarship: For a female participant in any semester program who demonstrates international awareness and a desire to create a more peaceful world through international exchange.
SIT Bonner Scholar Award: For students participating in this community service program.
SIT Fund: For students with demonstrated financial need who enroll in any SIT Study Abroad program, to help promote study abroad opportunities worldwide.
The Workum Fund: For SIT Study Abroad students studying on programs in the Indian subcontinent (India and Nepal), including the Tibetan and Himalayan Peoples program.
YOUTH FOUNDATION SCHOLARSHIP
The Youth Foundation provides funding to students to bolster self-reliance, confidence, self-discipline, responsibility, volunteerism, and exemplary character. Scholarships range from $2,500 to $4,000 per year and can be used for an undergraduate's junior year abroad. Selection is based on character, need, scholastic achievement, objective, motivation, potential for leadership, and good citizenship.
More information is available at: http://goo.gl/Qu2alp
INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION FINANCIAL AID CENTER
International Education Financial Aid (IEFA) is a clearinghouse for information on college scholarship, financial aid, and grants for all students wishing to study abroad. IEFA’s mission is to promote international education through the development and publication of a comprehensive database.
For more information on IEFA center: http://goo.gl/qOMNRV
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ABROAD SCHOLARSHIPS AND GRANTS
INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP
The International Affairs program offered by the Council on Foreign Relations offers fellowships for students intending to pursue a career in the Foreign Service. It is intended for mid-career scholars to broaden their foreign policy experience. Applicants must be U.S. citizens and permanent residents between the ages of 27 and 35 who are eligible to work in the United States. The program awards a stipend of $85,000.
For more information: http://www.cfr.org/thinktank/fellowships/iaf.html
INTERNATIONAL SERVICE LEARNING (ISL)
International Service Learning (ISL) offers $300 grants to graduate students and professionals who’d like to join the organization on global health teams. Team trips last from eight days to two weeks, with this year’s destinations being Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru.
Learn more: http://www.islonline.org/grad-grants/
ROTARY FOUNDATION AMBASSADORIAL SCHOLARSHIPS
Rotary Ambassadorial Scholarships and Grants aim to improve international understanding and positive relations. Recipients make appearances before Rotary clubs, schools, civic organizations, and other forums in the host country, and share their international experiences. Scholarships vary from one year to multi-year, providing $11,000—$23,000 for round-trip transportation, tuition, fees, room and board expenses, and some educational supplies. Cultural Ambassadorial Scholarships provide $10,000—$17,000 for three or six months of intensive language study and cultural immersion. These funds cover round-trip transportation, language training expenses, and homestay living arrangements.
More information: http://goo.gl/8MJ50j
THOMAS J. WATSON FELLOWSHIP
The Thomas J. Watson Fellowship offers graduating college seniors a year of independent, purposeful international exploration to enhance their capacity for resourcefulness, imagination, and leadership and to foster humane, effective participation in the world community. Applicants are eligible if their college or university is a participating institution. The stipend for the fellowship year is $28,000.
More information is available at: http://goo.gl/V2NeF0
TOURISM CARES SCHOLARSHIPS
Tourism Cares offers 22 Professional Development Scholarships ranging from $350 to $3,000 to benefit students working in or looking to enter careers in the travel or tourism industries. Its goal is to strengthen the travel and tourism workforce through continued education. Eligible applicants will be registering for a travel or tourism related professional development certificate program.
For more information on Toursim Cares scholarships: http://goo.gl/ChLFUt
U.S. STUDENT FULBRIGHT GRANT
Graduate students may apply for a Fulbright grant for research projects that can be completed in one academic year and that relate to the resources of the host country. The Fulbright international educational exchange program is sponsored by the U.S. government, and designed to increase multicultural understanding. Applicants must be U.S. citizens and have earned a bachelor's degree or its equivalent. Applicants also must have proficiency in the written and spoken language of the country.
For more information on Fulbright Grants: http://goo.gl/Sw14nY
OTHER HELPFUL RESOURCES, SCHOLARSHIPS, AND GRANTS
STUDY ABROAD SCHOLARSHIPS AND GRANTS
AIFS Study Abroad International Scholarships
American Institute for Yemeni Studies Fellowships
Amizade Global Service-Learning Scholarship
Anna Sobol Levy Fellowship
API Study Abroad Scholarships
ASU Study Abroad Office Travel Grant
Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship Program
BGU Ginsburg-Ingerman Scholarship
BP Workforce Readiness Program
Carpe Diem Education
Center for Study Abroad
Child Family Health International
CIEE Global Access Initiative (GAIN)
CIEE Language Intensive Focus Track (LIFT)
CIS Correspondent Scholarship
DiversityAbroad Study Abroad Scholarship
Dr. Carlos E. Castañeda Memorial Scholarship
Embassy of France Teaching Assistant Program in France
Esso Angolan Scholars Program
Eurobank EFG Scholarships
ExxonMobil Middle East and North Africa Scholars Program
ExxonMobil Romanian Geoscience Scholars Program
ExxonMobil Russian Scholars Program
Flinn Scholars Program
Fund for Education Abroad (FEA) Scholarships
Global Studies Grant for Student Travel and Study Abroad
Golden Key Study Abroad Scholarships
Haas/Koshland Memorial Award
John T. Petters Study Abroad Scholarship
Kate Neal Kinley Memorial Fellowship
Kingston University London Postgraduate International Scholarship
Kingston University London Undergraduate International Scholarships
Masa Israel Grants and Scholarships
Mattel Global Scholarship Program
NYU International Scholarship and Fellowship Programs
Petro-Canada Workforce Readiness Scholarship Program
ProWorld Scholarship Programs
SEA Semester Scholarships
Semester at Sea Scholarships and Grants
The Sharif Rahman Memorial Scholarship Program
Study Abroad Turkey Scholarship for Armenian American Students
Study Abroad Turkey Scholarship for Minority Students
USAC Scholarship Programs
RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ABROAD SCHOLARSHIPS AND GRANTS
Alicia Patterson Fellowship
Alcoa Foundation Advancing Sustainability Research
APA-AIA Minority Scholarship Program
ARIT Fellowships in the Humanities and Social Sciences
Bibliographical Society of America Major Grants
CAORC Mediterranean Regional Research Fellowship Program
Carol and Eric Meyers Doctoral Dissertation
Central Europe Summer Research Institute (CESRI)
China Medical Board Next Generation Fellowships
Economic History Association Grants
Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan
Conference on Latin American History James R Scobie Memorial Award
EHA Exploratory Travel and Data Grants
Emerging Markets Development Advisers Program
Ernest S. Frerichs Fellow and Program Coordinator Fellowship
Fogarty International Clinical Research Fellows Program
The GCA Awards in Tropical Botany
Harriet and Leon Pomerance Fellowship
Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation Fellowships
The Howard Chapnick Grant
IFUW International Awards
Individual Advanced Research Opportunities Program (IARO)
Institute of Current World Affairs (ICWA) John Miller Musser Memorial Fellowship
Jane C. Waldbaum Archaeological Field School Scholarship
Jeffery P. LaFage Graduate Student Research Award
Katharine F. Pantzer Jr Research Awards
The Lady Davis Fellowship Trust
Leakey Foundation Research Grants
Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Scholarships
Mellon Fellowships for Dissertation Research in Original Sources
National Academy of Education/Spencer Postdoctoral Fellowship
National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) Fellowship
Olivia James Traveling Fellowship
Open Society Fellowship
Pedro Barrié de la Maza Fellowship Program
The Population Council's Fellowships Program
Rainforest Alliance Kleinhans Fellowship
Samuel H. Kress Fellowship
Sigma Theta Tau Grants
University of Canterbury International Doctoral Scholarships
WARA Pre- and Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship Program
World Forestry Center Fellowship
Whitaker International Fellows and Scholars Program
P.S. If you're still looking for a volunteer opportunity, check out our list of best volunteer abroad programs and recommended volunteer projects in Africa, Central America, and Thailand. You can also read about 7 Great Medical and Veterinary Volunteer Abroad Projects, 10 Dental Volunteer Abroad Program and Medical Mission Tips for Pre Dental Students, and nursing volunteer abroad projects for students and nurse professionals. Or, if medical volunteer projects aren't for you, be sure to read about our sports and coaching volunteer abroad, wildlife conservation and veterinary abroad, teach abroad, and intern abroad programs. Lastly, if you're under 18, you may be interested in a teen volunteer abroad program from one of our many great partners.
Ready to fundraise while applying for scholarships? Click the button below to launch your fundraising campaign or sign into your Volunteer Forever account!
Hi Sarah - my organization called the Foundation for Intercultural Exchange offers a number of small scholarships for students interested in service-learning abroad. It is open to anyone and the scholarship can be awarded to a select number of international service-learning programs. Would you be able to add us to your list? We're in a beginning phase but are looking to get the word out! Thanks!
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Hello everyone For about a week now I've been in UK, I'm currently in UK for work purpose, I got my work visa to UK processed by Team Alex, You would want to apply for your visa to U.S.A, CANADA, UK, INDIA or to any other country about 2 months before travel, Apply directly, Contact Alex customer operation team on:[email protected] and request for visa information Form that has all the step by step process on how to obtain a visa along with the fees for processing.
I am currently a student in the UK volunteering in June with an organisation called VESA UK in Ecuador, carrying out conservation work and teaching English. Am i eligible to apply for any of these scholarships?
Cool resource, Anand - thanks for sharing! Hope you will add the Volunteer Forever Travel Scholarship!
The Union of India and the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal initiated their relationship with the 1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship and accompanying secret letters that defined security relations between the two countries, and an agreement governing both bilateral trade and trade transiting Indian territory. The 1950 treaty and letters exchanged between the then Indian government and Rana rulers of Nepal, stated that "neither government shall tolerate any threat to the security of the other by a foreign aggressor" and obligated both sides "to inform each other of any serious friction or misunderstanding with any neighboring state likely to cause any breach in the friendly relations subsisting between the two governments." These accords cemented a "special relationship" between India and Nepal. The treaty also granted Nepalese, the same economic and educational opportunities as Indian citizens in India, while accounting for preferential treatment to Indian citizens and businesses compared to other nationalities in Nepal. The Indo-Nepal border is open; Nepalese and Indian nationals may move freely across the border without passports or visas and may live and work in either country. However, Indians aren't allowed to own land-properties or work in government institutions in Nepal, while Nepalese nationals in India are allowed to work in Indian government institutions (except in some states) and some civil services (the IFS, IAS, and IPS). After years of dissatisfaction by the Nepalese government, India in 2014, agreed to revise and adjust the treaty to the reflect the current realities. However, the modality of adjustment hasn't been made clear by either side.
Despite the close linguistic, marital, religious, and, cultural ties, at people to people level between Indians and Nepalese, since late 2015, political issues and border disputes have strained relations between the two countries with anti-Indian sentiment growing among-st the government and people of Nepal. Further because of border disputes between the two countries, a boundary agreement hasn't yet been ratified by either government.
Independent political history
The foundation of friendship between India and Nepal was laid with Indo-Nepalese friendship treaty in 1950. In the 1950s, the Rana rulers of Nepal welcomed close relations with India, fearing a China-backed communist overthrow of their (Rana) autocratic regime. Rana rule in Nepal however collapsed within 3 months of signing the 1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship, only to be replaced by the only pro-Indian party of the time – Nepali Congress. As the number of Indians living and working in Nepal's Terai region increased and the involvement of India in Nepal's politics deepened in the 1960s and after, so too did Nepal's discomfort with the special relationship. India's influence over Nepal increased throughout the 1950s. The Nepalese Citizenship Act of 1952 allowed Indians to immigrate to Nepal and acquire Nepalese citizenship with ease—a source of huge resentment in Nepal (This policy was not changed until 1962 when several restrictive clauses were added to the Nepalese constitution). Also in 1952, an Indian military mission was established in Nepal, which consisted of a Major General and 20 other Indian army personnel (later extended to 197 in total). At the same time, Nepal's Royal family's dissatisfaction with India's growing influence began to emerge, and overtures to China were initiated by Nepal as a counterweight to India. Further the Nepalese government, as a deliberate attempt to show pro-USA tilt in Nepalese foreign policy, established diplomatic ties with the state of Israel in June 1, 1960, while the Indian government supported Palestine and remained pro-USSR throughout the cold war.
Following the 1962 Sino-Indian border war, the relationship between Kathmandu and New Delhi thawed significantly. India suspended its support to India-based Nepalese opposition forces (opposing the dissolution of democratic government by King Mahendra) which India had been doing in violation of 1950's PFT, which clearly stated 'not to allow any country's soil to be used against the other'. The defeat of Indian forces in 1962 provided Nepal with the breathing space and Nepal extracted several concessions in trade. In exchange, through a secret accord concluded in 1965, similar to an arrangement that had been suspended in 1963, India won a monopoly on arms sales to Nepal and thus preventing the possibility of China from supplying any arms to Nepalese Armed forces.
In 1969 relations again became stressful as Nepal challenged the existing mutual security arrangement and asked that the Indian security checkposts and liaison group be withdrawn. Resentment also was expressed against the 1950s TPF. India withdrew its military check-posts and liaison group consisting of 23 military personnel in 1970 from Nepal, although the treaty was not abrogated.
Tensions came to a head in the mid-1970s, when Nepal pressed for substantial changes in the trade and transit treaty and openly criticised Sikkim's 1975 annexation by India. In 1975 King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev against the backdrop of Indian annexation of Nepal's close neighbor 'The Kingdom of Sikkim' proposed Nepal to be recognized internationally as a 'Zone of Peace' where military competition would be off limits. Nepal's proposal immediately received support from Pakistan and China, but not from India. In New Delhi's view, if the king's proposal did not contradict the 1950 treaty that the-then Indian government had signed with the Rana rulers of Nepal, it was unnecessary; if it was a repudiation of the special relationship, it represented a possible threat to India's security and could not be endorsed. In 1984 Nepal repeated the proposal, but there was no reaction from India. Nepal continually promoted the proposal in international forums and by 1990 it had won the support of 112 countries including the USA, the UK, and France.
In 1978 India agreed to separate trade and transit treaties, satisfying a long-term Nepalese demand. However, much to the annoyance of Nepalese Royal Palace and in continued violation of the 1950s PFT, India consistently allowed the opposition parties of Nepal to use Indian soil to launch agitation against the Nepalese government and refused to endorse Nepal as a Zone of Peace.
In 1988, when the two treaties were up for renewal, Nepal refused to accommodate India's wishes for a single trade and transit treaty stating that 'it violates the principle of freedom to trade'. Thereafter, both India and Nepal took a hard-line position that led to a serious crisis in India–Nepal relations. Nepalese leaders asserted the position that as per the UN charter, transit privileges were "a fundamental and a permanent right of a land-locked country" and thus India's demand for a single treaty was unacceptable. So, after two extensions, the two treaties expired on 23 March 1989, resulting in a virtual Indian economic blockade of Nepal that lasted until late April 1990. As time passed Indian economic sanctions over Nepal steadily widened. For example, preferential customs and transit duties on Nepalese goods entering or passing through India (whether imports or exports) were discontinued. Thereafter India let agreements relating to oil processing and warehouse space in Calcutta for goods destined to Nepal expire. Aside from these sanctions, India cancelled all trade credits it had previously extended to Nepal on a routine basis.
To withstand the renewed Indian pressure, Nepal undertook a major diplomatic initiative to present its case on trade and transit matters to the world community. The relationship with India was further strained in 1989 when Nepal decoupled its rupee from the Indian rupee which previously had circulated freely in Nepal. India retaliated by denying port facilities in Calcutta to Nepal, thereby preventing delivery of oil supplies from Singapore and other sources. In historian Enayetur Rahim's view, "the economic consequences of the dispute... were enormous. Nepal's GDP growth rate plummeted from 9.7% in 1988 to 1.5% in 1989. This had a lot to do with the decreased availability of goods. Shortly after the imposition of sanctions, Nepal experienced serious deficiencies of important goods such as coal, fuel, oil, medicine and spare parts. Nepal also suffered economically from higher tariffs, the closure of border points and the tense political atmosphere. From one of the most thriving economies in Asia, Nepal was now quickly finding itself in the league of World's poorest nation." Although economic issues were a major factor in the two countries' confrontation, Indian dissatisfaction with Nepal's decision to impose work permits over Indians living in Nepal and Nepal government's attempt to acquire Chinese weaponry in 1988 played an important role. India linked security with economic relations and insisted on reviewing India–Nepal relations as a whole. After failing to receive support from wider international community, Nepalese government backed down from its position to avoid the worsening economic conditions. Indian government, with the help of Nepalese opposition parties operating from India, managed to bring a change in Nepal's political system, in which the king was forced to institute a parliamentary democracy. The new government, led by pro-India parties, sought quick restoration of amicable relations with India.
The special security relationship between New Delhi and Kathmandu was re-established during the June 1990 New Delhi meeting of Nepal's prime minister Krishna Prasad Bhattarai and Indian prime minister V.P. Singh, after India ended its 13-month-long economic blockade of Nepal. During the December 1991 visit to India by Nepalese prime minister Girija Prasad Koirala, the two countries signed new, separate trade and transit treaties and other economic agreements designed to accord Nepal additional economic benefits.
Indian-Nepali relations appeared to be undergoing still more reassessment when Nepal's prime minister Man Mohan Adhikary visited New Delhi in April 1995 and insisted on a major review of the 1950 peace and friendship treaty which Nepal believed was enabling an ongoing demographic shift in Nepal's Terai region. In the face of benign statements by his Indian hosts relating to the treaty, Adhikary sought greater economic independence for his landlocked nation while simultaneously striving to improve ties with China.
In June 1990, a joint Kathmandu-New Delhi communique was issued pending the finalisation of a comprehensive arrangement covering all aspects of bilateral relations, restoring trade relations, reopening transit routes for Nepal's imports, and formalising respect of each other's security concerns. Essentially, the communiqué announced the restoration of the status quo ante and the reopening of all border points, and Nepal agreed to various concessions regarding India's commercial privileges. Kathmandu also announced that lower cost was the decisive factor in its purchasing arms and personnel carriers from China and that Nepal was advising China to withhold delivery of the last shipment.
In 2005, after King Gyanendra took over, Nepalese relations with India soured. However, even after the restoration of democracy, in 2008, Prachanda, the Prime Minister of Nepal, visited India, in September 2008 only after visiting China, breaking the long held tradition of Nepalese PM making India as their first port-of-call. When in India, he spoke about a new dawn, in the bilateral relations, between the two countries. He said, "I am going back to Nepal as a satisfied person. I will tell Nepali citizens back home that a new era has dawned. Time has come to effect a revolutionary change in bilateral relations. On behalf of the new government, I assure you that we are committed to make a fresh start."
In 2006, the newly formed democratic parliament of Nepal passed the controversial citizenship bill that led to distribution of Nepalese citizenship to nearly 4 million stateless immigrants in Nepal's Terai by virtue of naturalisation. While the Indian government welcomed the reformed citizenship law, certain section of Nepalese people expressed deep concerns regarding the new citizenship act and feared that the new citizenship law might be a threat to Nepalese sovereignty. The citizenship bill passed by the Nepalese parliament in 2006 was the same bill that was rejected by Late King Birendra in 2000 before he along with his entire family was massacred. Indian government formally expressed sorrow at the death of Late King Birendra of Nepal.
In 2008, Indo-Nepal ties got a further boost with an agreement to resume water talks after a 4-year hiatus. The Nepalese Water Resources Secretary Shanker Prasad Koirala said the Nepal-India Joint Committee on Water Resources meet decided to start the reconstruction of the breached Koshi embankment after the water level went down. During the Nepal PM's visit to New Delhi in September the two Prime Ministers expressed satisfaction at the age-old close, cordial and extensive relationships between their states and expressed their support and co-operation to further consolidate the relationship.
The two issued a 22-point statement highlighting the need to review, adjust and update the 1950 Treaty of Peace and Friendship, amongst other agreements. India would also provide a credit line of up to $15 million to Nepal to ensure uninterrupted supplies of petroleum products, as well as lift bans on the export of rice, wheat, maize, sugar and sucrose for quantities agreed to with Nepal. India would also provide $2 million as immediate flood relief.
In return, Nepal will take measures for the "promotion of investor friendly, enabling business environment to encourage Indian investments in Nepal."
In 2010 India extended a Line of credit worth US$50 million & 80,000 tonnes of foodgrains. Furthermore, a three-tier mechanism at the level of ministerial, secretary and technical levels will be built to push forward discussions on the development of water resources between the two sides. Politically, India acknowledged a willingness to promote efforts towards peace in Nepal. Indian External affairs minister Pranab Mukherjee promised the Nepali Prime MinisterPrachanda that he would "extend all possible help for peace and development."
However, in recent years, the increasing dominance of Maoism in Nepal's domestic politics, along with the strengthening economic and political influence of the People's Republic of China has caused the Nepalese government to gradually distance its ties with India, though Nepal still does support India at the UN. Prime Minister of IndiaNarendra Modi visited Nepal in August 2014, marking the first official visit by an Indian prime minister in 17 years. During his visit, Indian government agreed to provide Nepal with USD 1 billion as concessional line of credit for various development purposes and a HIT formula, but he insisted that Indian immigrants in Nepal don't pose a threat to Nepal's sovereignty and therefore open border between Nepal and India should be a bridge and not a barrier. Nepal and India signed an important deal on 25 November 2014 as per which India will build a 900 MW hydropower plant at a cost of another USD 1 billion. An amount of US$250 million has been granted to Nepal as a part of the agreements signed on 22 February 2016 for post-earthquake reconstruction.
A perpetual issue for many people of Nepali origin; the birthplace of Gautama Buddha has long been a cultural and social issue devoid from the political landscape of both Nepal and India. However, since the souring of relations between the two countries, the issue has been used to undermine relations between the two countries both politically and socially. The two-day-long International Buddhist conference in Kathmandu which ran from May 19–20, 2016 marked Vesak and the 2,560th birthday of the Buddha was also used to promote the Buddha's birthplace which lies in modern-day Nepal. The decision of the Nepal Culture Ministry to change the theme, "Preservation and Development of Buddhist Heritage of Nepal" with the sub-theme "Lumbini – Birthplace of Buddha" under the name "Lumbini – Fountainhead of Buddhism" was met with criticism from India which subsequently boycotted the conference due to this and on the back of China's supposed monetary involvement in the conference. Nepali Prime Minister, K.P. Oli told the media that the conference, "should help us make clear to the world that Buddha was born in Nepal and that Buddhist philosophy is the product of Nepal".
In early March 2017, the fatal shooting of a Nepali man who was protesting Indian-occupation on disputed territory between India and Nepal sparked protests in the capital Kathmandu, Nepal. Indian troops had previously prevented Nepal from completing a culvert in the disputed area which ultimately led to protests. It was considered rare for India to retaliate with gunfire.
The current border between Nepal and India exists as a legacy of British India. The present border between Nepal and India was set after the former's defeat at the hands of British in 1814 which led to the Treaty of Sugauli with Nepal losing the territories of Darjeeling to the East and Kumaon and Garhwal up to Sutlej river in the West. Mechi river was set to be the Eastern border between British India and Nepal whereas Mahakali river was set to be the Western border. However, lack of clarity in defining the exact tributaries and point of origin of the rivers has led to border disputes.
The Territorial disputes of India and Nepal include Kalapani 400 km2 at India-Nepal-China tri-junction in Western Nepal and Susta 140 km2 in Southern Nepal. Nepal claims that the river to the west of Kalapani is the main Kali river hence the area should belong to Nepal. But India claims that the river to the west of Kalapani is not the main Kali river, and, therefore the border there should be based on the ridge lines of the mountains Om Parvat to the east of the river. The river borders the Nepalese zone of Mahakali and the Indian state of Uttarakhand. The Sugauli Treaty signed by Nepal and British India on 4 March 1816 locates the Kali River as Nepal's western boundary with India. Subsequent maps drawn by British surveyors show the source of the boundary river at different places. This discrepancy in locating the source of the river led to boundary disputes between India and Nepal, with each country producing maps supporting their own claims. Indian government, however, from 1962 onward, forwarded the argument that border should be based on the ridge lines of the mountain Om Parvat. The Kali River runs through an area that includes a disputed area of about 400 km² around the source of the river although the exact size of the disputed area varies from source to source. The dispute intensified in 1997 as the Nepali parliament considered a treaty on hydro-electric development of the river. India and Nepal differ as to which stream constitutes the source of the river. Nepal has reportedly tabled an 1856 map from the British India Office to support its position. Kalapani has been controlled by India's Indo-Tibetan border security forces since the Sino-Indian War with China in 1962. In 2015, the Nepalese parliament objected an agreement between India and China to trade through Lipulekh Pass, a mountainous pass in the disputed Kalapani area, stating that the agreement between India and China to trade through Kalapani violates Nepal's sovereign rights over the territory. Nepal has called for the withdrawal of the Indian border forces from Kalapani area.
As the first step for demarcating Indo-Nepal border, survey teams from both countries located and identified missing pillars along the border, and, an agreement was reached to construct new pillars in some places. According to the Nepalese government estimates, of the 8000 boundary pillars along the border, 1,240 pillars are missing, 2,500 require restoration, and, 400 more need to be constructed. The survey teams conducted survey of the border pillars based on the strip maps prepared by the Joint Technical Level Nepal-India Boundary Committee (JTLNIBC). The JTLNIBC was set up in 1981 to demarcate the India-Nepal border and after years of surveying, deliberations and extensions, the Committee had delineated 98 per cent of the India-Nepal boundary, excluding Kalapani and Susta, on 182 strip maps which was finally submitted in 2007 for ratification by both the countries. Unfortunately neither country ratified the maps. Nepal maintained that it cannot ratify the maps without the resolution of outstanding boundary disputes, i.e. Kalapani and Susta. India, on the other hand, awaited Nepal’s ratification while at the same time urging it to endorse the maps as a confidence building measure for solving the Kalapani and Susta disputes. In absence of a ratification, the process of completely demarcating the India-Nepal boundary could not be undertaken.
Main articles: Designated border crossings of India and Borders of India
Integrated check posts with immigration and customs facilities are:
Nepal’s trade deficit with India has surged in recent years with continuously rising imports and sluggish exports. Indo-Nepal trade continues to remain massively in India's favor. For the fiscal year 2010–11 (July 16 – July 15), the official bilateral trade between the two nations was US$4.21 billion, while the unofficial trade between the two countries is also estimated to be about the same. Unofficial trade between the two countries, however, has flourished over the recent decades. Open border between the two countries has meant that madheshi immigrants living along the Indo-Nepal border trade unofficially to avoid paying importation tax in Nepal. Records from Nepalese 'Bhansar Karyalaya' show that Nepal’s import from India amounted to US$3.62 billion and exports to India was US$599.7 million in 2010–11. In the first six months of fiscal year 2011–12, Nepal’s total trade with India was about US$1.93 billion; Nepal’s exports to India were about US$284.8 million; and imports from India were about US$1.64 billion.
Nepal’s main imports from India are petroleum products (28.6%), motor vehicles and spare parts (7.8%), M. S. billet (7%), medicines (3.7%), other machinery and spares (3.4%), coldrolled sheet in coil (3.1%), electrical equipment (2.7%), hotrolled sheet in coil (2%), M. S. wires, roads, coils and bars (1.9%), cement (1.5%), agriculture equipment and parts (1.2%), chemical fertilizer (1.1%), chemicals (1.1%) and thread (1%). Nepal’s export basket to India mainly comprises jute goods (9.2%), zinc sheet (8.9%), textiles (8.6%), threads (7.7%), polyester yarn (6%), juice (5.4%), catechue (4.4%), Cardamom (4.4%), wire (3.7%), tooth paste (2.2%) and M. S. Pipe (2.1%).
Human trafficking in Nepal is a serious concern. An estimated 100,000–200,000 Nepalese in India are believed to have been trafficked. Sex trafficking is particularly rampant within Nepal and to India, with as many as 5,000–10,000 women and girls trafficked to India alone each year. The seriousness of trafficking of Nepalese girls to India was highlighted by CNN Freedom Project's documentary: Nepal's Stolen Children.Maiti Nepal has rescued more than 12,000 stolen Nepalese children from sex trafficking since 1993.
Violation of norms by Indian forces
On 9 March 2017, Indian border security personnel gunned down a Nepali national named Govinda Gautam at Punarbas-8 of Kanchanpur district entering 800 metres inside Nepalese border. On 2 June 2017, Indian Police entered western hill district Doti without informing Nepal Police and abducted a Nepali national. Later the Indian Police personnel including a DSP were detained for a day.
2015 Madhesi crisis and Nepal
Main article: 2015 Nepal fuel crisis
Nepal promulgated its new Constitution in 2015 but the Madheshis, the Janajatis and the Tharus, who are considered as the marginalized groups felt they were being left out in the new constitution. These groups, Madheshi in particular, then blockaded the border points. The Nepalese government accused India of deliberately worsening the embargo by not allowing vehicles to pass from check-points where no protests were held, questioning 'How could a handful of protesters possibly block the 1100 km long Indo-Nepal border?'. Indian government however denied all allegations of any involvement in the blockade.
The Madhesi parties after Madhesh andolan accepted two provinces in Terai instead of one. But there was heavy disagreement over three districts in the east (Sunsari, Morang and Jhapa) and two in the west (Kanchanpur and Kailali) among the top parties. Excluding Sunsari takes away the key border town of Biratnagar and the Kosi basin while Kailali has a large Tharu population but not a majority, which it shares with neighboring Bardiya. Madheshi people of these districts want these districts to be included in the Madhesh pradesh. However, these sentiments are not apparent over all of the people of the aforementioned districts. Jhapa, for example has a majority of Nepalese Brahmins and Nepalese Kshtiryas, who are staunchly against being included in the Madhes state. Madheshi parties have demanded that districts in Terai, which don't have majority of Madheshi immigrants nor indigenous Tharus, to be included in Madhesh pradesh. All of the other major parties are opposed to this. During the India-backed madhesh andolan, 11 policeman including a 2 year old child of a policeman were killed by Madheshi immigrant protesters. Since then anti-Indian sentiment has massively spread over the rest of Nepal.
The other issue pertains to defining electoral constituencies. The 2015 Constitution reduces the weight-age given to proportional representation. Terai constitutes 51 per cent of the Nepal's population, but according to calculations, it would have got only 75 out of a total of 165 seats under the first past the post system, instead of 83, as per its population. The notion of fixing electoral constituencies after taking into account ‘population and geography’ was intended to ensure that the sparsely populated trans-Himalayan districts are not left out of the democratic process. The outgoing government had worked out a compromise safeguarding the interests of six mountain districts while raising the number of Terai constituencies to 81. The new provisions however has meant that district in Mid-western hill region are likely to be seriously under-represented in the new parliament, despite people their being more marginalized and discriminated than the Madheshi immigrants of Terai. Under the new provision, the districts of hills will have their total number of constituents decreased by 20% that previous constitution had ensured.
Citizenship has long been an emotive issue among the Madhesi immigrants as they always marry Indians from the northern districts of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh and spouses of Nepali citizens become ‘naturalized Nepali citizens’. However, there is a provision regarding the offspring of such marriages. Children of a Nepali male marrying a foreigner are ‘Nepalis by descent” whereas if a Nepali woman marries a foreigner, their children are ‘naturalized Nepalis’ which bars them from important and powerful constitutional positions. This is an issue that has been taken up by women’s groups on the grounds that it violates the basic principle of equality guaranteed by the Constitution. However, in Hindu tradition, unlike in the western societies, it is common for the wife to move to the husbands's house but not vice versa. Many real Nepalese deeply fear the long term effect of allowing 'Nepalese by descent' provision to children born to non-Nepali father, as it would mean people who were neither born in Nepal nor have lived a day of their life in Nepal would be able to contest elections and hold high offices. While it is one of the main demands of madheshi immigrants, many Nepalese remain deeply skeptical about the real motive behind such a demand by Indian immigrant madheshis.
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