For other uses, see Night sky (disambiguation).
The term night sky refers to the sky as seen at night. The term is usually associated with astronomy, with reference to views of celestial bodies such as stars, the Moon, and planets that become visible on a clear night after the Sun has set. Natural light sources in a night sky include moonlight, starlight, and airglow, depending on location and timing. The aurora borealis and aurora australis light up the skies of the Arctic and Antarctic circles respectively. Occasionally, a large coronal mass ejection from the Sun or simply high levels of solar wind extend the phenomenon toward the equator.
The night sky and studies of it have a historical place in both ancient and modern cultures. In the past, for instance, farmers have used the state of the night sky as a calendar to determine when to plant crops. Many cultures have drawn constellations between stars in the sky, using them in association with legends and mythology about their deities.
The anciently developed belief of astrology is generally based on the belief that relationships between heavenly bodies influence or convey information about events on Earth. The scientific study of the night sky and bodies observed within it, meanwhile, takes place in the science of astronomy.
The visibility of celestial objects in the night sky is affected by light pollution. The presence of the Moon in the night sky has historically hindered astronomical observation by increasing the amount of ambient lighting. With the advent of artificial light sources, however, light pollution has been a growing problem for viewing the night sky. Special filters and modifications to light fixtures can help to alleviate this problem, but for the best seeing both professional and amateur optical astronomers seek viewing sites located far from major urban areas.
Main article: Sky brightness
The fact that the sky is not completely dark at night, even in the absence of moonlight and city lights, can be easily observed, since if the sky were absolutely dark, one would not be able to see the silhouette of an object against the sky.
The intensity of the sky varies greatly over the day and the primary cause differs as well. During daytime when the sun is above the horizon direct scattering of sunlight (Rayleigh scattering) is the overwhelmingly dominant source of light. In twilight, the period of time between sunset and sunrise, the situation is more complicated and a further differentiation is required. Twilight is divided in three segments according to how far the sun is below the horizon in segments of 6°.
After sunset the civil twilight sets in, and ends when the sun drops more than 6° below the horizon. This is followed by the nautical twilight, when the sun reaches heights of -6° and -12°, after which comes the astronomical twilight defined as the period from -12° to -18°. When the sun drops more than 18° below the horizon the sky generally attains its minimum brightness.
Several sources can be identified as the source of the intrinsic brightness of the sky, namely airglow, indirect scattering of sunlight, scattering of starlight, and artificial light pollution.
Depending on local sky cloud cover, pollution, humidity, and light pollution levels, the stars visible to the unaided naked eye appear as hundreds, thousands or tens of thousands of white pinpoints of light in an otherwise near black sky together with some feint nebulae or clouds of light . In ancient times the stars were often assumed to be equidistant on a dome above the earth because they are much too far away for stereopsis to offer any depth cues. Visible stars range in color from blue (hot) to red (cold), but with such small points of feint light, most look white because they stimulate the rod cells without triggering the cone cells. If it is particularly dark and a particularly faint celestial object is of interest, averted vision may be helpful.
The stars of the night sky cannot be counted unaided because they are so numerous and there is no way to track which have been counted and which have not. Further complicating the count, fainter stars may appear and disappear depending on exactly where the observer is looking. The result is an impression of an extraordinarily vast star field.
Because stargazing is best done from a dark place away from city lights, dark adaptation is important to achieve and maintain. It takes several minutes for eyes to adjust to the darkness necessary for seeing the most stars, and surroundings on the ground are hard to discern. A red flashlight (torch) can be used to illuminate star charts, telescope parts, and the like without undoing the dark adaptation. (See Purkinje effect).
There are no markings on the night sky, though there exist many sky maps to aid stargazers in identifying constellations and other celestial objects. Constellations are prominent because their stars tend to be brighter than other nearby stars in the sky. Different cultures have created different groupings of constellations based on differing interpretations of the more-or-less random patterns of dots in the sky. Constellations were identified without regard to distance to each star, but instead as if they were all dots on a dome.
Orion is among the most prominent and recognizable constellations. The Big Dipper (which has a wide variety of other names) is helpful for navigation in the northern hemisphere because it points to Polaris, the north star.
The pole stars are special because they are approximately in line with the Earth's axis of rotation so they appear to stay in one place while the other stars rotate around them through the course of a night (or a year).
Planets, named for the Greek word for "wanderer," process through the star field a little each day, executing loops with time scales dependent on the length of the planets year or orbital period around solar system. Planets, to the naked eye, appear as points of light in the sky with variable brightness. Planets shine due to sunlight reflecting or scattering from the planets surface or atmosphere. Thus the relative sun planet earth positions determine the planets brightness. With telescope or good binoculars the planets appear as discs demonstrating finite size and also show phases like Earth's moon and also may possess their own orbiting moons which occasionally cast shadow onto the host planet surface . Venus is the most prominent planet, often called the "morning star" or "evening star" because it is brighter than the stars and often the only "star" visible near sunrise or sunset depending on its location in its orbit. Mercury, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn are also visible to the naked eye.
Earth's Moon is a grey disc in the sky with cratering visible to the naked eye. It spans, depending on its exact location, 29-33 arcminutes - which is about the size of a thumbnail at arm's length, and is readily identified. Over 28 days, the moon goes through a full cycle of lunar phases. People can generally identify phases within a few days by looking at the moon. Unlike stars and most planets, the light reflected from the moon is bright enough to be seen during the day. (Venus can sometimes be seen even after sunrise.)
Some of the most spectacular moons come during the full moon phase near sunset or sunrise. The moon on the horizon benefits from the moon illusion which makes it appear larger. The light reflected from the moon traveling through the atmosphere also colors the moon orange and/or red.
Comets come to the night sky only rarely. Comets are illuminated by the sun, and their tails extend away from the sun. A comet with visible tail is quite unusual - a great comet appears about once a decade. They tend to be visible only shortly before sunrise or after sunset because those are the times they are close enough to the sun to show a tail.
Clouds obscure the view of other objects in the sky, though varying thicknesses of cloudcover have differing effects. A very thin cirrus cloud in front of the moon might produce a rainbow-colored ring around the moon. Stars and planets are too small or dim to take on this effect, and are instead only dimmed (often to the point of invisibility). Thicker cloudcover obscures celestial objects entirely, making the sky black or reflecting city lights back down. Clouds are often close enough to afford some depth perception, though they are hard to see without moonlight or light pollution.
On clear dark nights in unpolluted areas, when the moon is thin or below the horizon, a band of what looks like white dust, the Milky Way, can be seen.
Shortly after sunset and before sunrise, artificial satellites often look like stars—similar in brightness and size—but move relatively quickly. Those that fly in low Earth orbit cross the sky in a couple of minutes. Some satellites, including space debris, appear to blink or have a periodic fluctuation in brightness because they are rotating.
Meteors (commonly known as shooting stars) streak across the sky very infrequently. During a meteor shower, they may average one a minute at irregular intervals, but otherwise their appearance is a random surprise. The occasional meteor will make a bright, fleeting streak across the sky, and they can be very bright in comparison to the night sky.
Aircraft are also visible at night, distinguishable at a distance from other objects because their lights blink.
This is an example of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram (HR diagram), first used in 1912. Two astronomers, Ejnar Hertzsprung from Denmark and Henry Norris Russell from the Unites States, both discovered that the brightness of a star depends on the surface temperature of the star. They each made this discovery on their own separately. Together, they came up with this diagram that explains the brightness, temperature and classes of stars.
The scale on the left shows how bright a star is.
The letters across the bottom represent the spectral class of stars, or color of stars.
O – Blue
B – Blue/White
A – White
F - White/Yellow
G – Yellow
K – Orange
M - Red
The temperature of the stars measured across the bottom of the scale are measured in Kelvin. Zero Kelvin equals -273 degrees Celsius, -459 degrees Fahrenheit.
As you can see, there are only a few categories of stars. Most stars in our universe are main sequence stars, including our sun Sol. Notice how the biggest stars are the brightest but not the hottest. The white dwarf stars are near the end of their life and losing much of their brightness but they are very hot.
Can you find Sol? Can you find Antares? Can you find Wolf? What is the temperature of Beta Centauri? What class is Polaris? What class is Bellatrix? How bright is Vega? How bright is Deneb? How bright is Beta Sirius?