Independence Day Essay Wikipedia Shqip

"Fifteenth of August" redirects here. For other uses, see 15 August.

Independence Day of India

The national flag of India hoisted on the Red Fort in Delhi; hoisted flag is a common sight on public and private buildings on Independence Day.

Observed by India
TypeNational
SignificanceCommemorates the independence of India
CelebrationsFlag Hoisting, parade, fireworks, Singing Patriotic Songs and the national anthem, Speech by the Prime Minister and President of India
Date15 August
Next time15 August 2018 (2018-08-15)
FrequencyAnnual

Part of a series on the

History of India

Independence Day is annually celebrated on 15 August, as a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947, the UK Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act 1947 transferring legislative sovereignty to the Indian Constituent Assembly. India still retained King George VI as head of state until its transition to full republican constitution. India attained independence following the Independence Movement noted for largely nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress (INC). Independence coincided with the partition of India, in which the British India was divided along religious lines into the Dominions of India and Pakistan; the partition was accompanied by violent riots and mass casualties, and the displacement of nearly 15 million people due to religious violence. On 15 August 1947, the Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru raised the Indian national flag above the Lahori Gate of the Red Fort in Delhi. On each subsequent Independence Day, the prime minister customarily raises the flag and gives an address to the nation.[1]

The holiday is observed throughout India with flag-hoisting ceremonies, parades and cultural events. There is a national holiday, and schools and government offices distribute sweets, but no official work is done.[2][3]

History[edit]

Main article: Indian independence movement

European traders had established outposts in the Indian subcontinent by the 17th century. Through overwhelming military strength, the British East India company subdued local kingdoms and established themselves as the dominant force by the 18th century. Following the First War of Independence of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led the British Crown to assume direct control of India. In the decades following, civic society gradually emerged across India, most notably the Indian National Congress Party, formed in 1885.[4][5]:123 The period after World War I was marked by British reforms such as the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, but it also witnessed the enactment of the repressive Rowlatt Act and calls for self-rule by Indian activists. The discontent of this period crystallised into nationwide non-violent movements of non-cooperation and civil disobedience, led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.[5]:167

During the 1930 s, reform was gradually legislated by the British; Congress won victories in the resulting elections.[5]:195–197 The next decade was beset with political turmoil: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress' final push for non-cooperation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism led by the All-India Muslim League. The escalating political tension was capped by Independence in 1947. The jubilation was tempered by the bloody partition of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan.[5]:203

Independence Day before Independence[edit]

At the 1929 Lahore session of the Indian National Congress, the Purna Swaraj declaration, or "Declaration of the Independence of India" was promulgated,[6] and 15 August was declared as Independence Day.[6] The Congress called on people to pledge themselves to civil disobedience and "to carry out the Congress instructions issued from time to time" until India attained complete independence.[7] Celebration of such an Independence Day was envisioned to stoke nationalistic fervour among Indian citizens, and to force the British government to consider granting independence.[8]:19 The Congress observed 26 January as the Independence Day between 1930 and 1946.[9][10] The celebration was marked by meetings where the attendants took the "pledge of independence".[8]:19–20 Jawaharlal Nehru described in his autobiography that such meetings were peaceful, solemn, and "without any speeches or exhortation".[11] Gandhi envisaged that besides the meetings, the day would be spent "... in doing some constructive work, whether it is spinning, or service of 'untouchables,' or reunion of Hindus and Mussalmans, or prohibition work, or even all these together".[12] Following actual independence in 1947, the Constitution of India came into effect on and from 26 January 1950; since then 26 January is celebrated as Republic Day.

Immediate background[edit]

In 1946, the Labour government in Britain, its exchequer exhausted by the recently concluded World War II, realised that it had neither the mandate at home, the international support, nor the reliability of native forces for continuing to control an increasingly restless India.[5]:203[13][14][15] In February 1947, Prime Minister Clement Attlee announced that the British government would grant full self-governance to British India by June 1948 at the latest.[16]

The new viceroy, Lord Mountbatten, advanced the date for the transfer of power, believing the continuous contention between the Congress and the Muslim League might lead to a collapse of the interim government.[17] He chose the second anniversary of Japan's surrender in World War II, 15 August, as the date of power transfer.[17] The British government announced on 3 June 1947 that it had accepted the idea of partitioning British India into two states;[16] the successor governments would be given dominion status and would have an implicit right to secede from the British Commonwealth. The Indian Independence Act 1947 (10 & 11 Geo 6 c. 30) of the Parliament of the United Kingdom partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan (including what is now Bangladesh) with effect from 15 August 1947, and granted complete legislative authority upon the respective constituent assemblies of the new countries.[18] The Act received royal assent on 18 July 1947.

Partition and independence[edit]

08.30 a.m. Swearing in of governor general and ministers at
Government House
09.40 a.m. Procession of ministers to Constituent Assembly
09.50 a.m. State drive to Constituent Assembly
09.55 a.m. Royal salute to governor general
10.30 a.m. Hoisting of national flag at Constituent Assembly
10.35 a.m. State drive to Government House
06.00 p.m. Flag ceremony at India Gate
07.00 p.m. Illuminations
07.45 p.m. Fireworks display
08.45 p.m. Official dinner at Government House
10.15 p.m. Reception at Government office.

The day's programme for 15 August 1947[19]:7

Millions of Muslim, Sikh and Hindu refugees trekked the newly drawn borders in the months surrounding independence.[20] In Punjab, where the borders divided the Sikh regions in halves, massive bloodshed followed; in Bengal and Bihar, where Mahatma Gandhi's presence assuaged communal tempers, the violence was mitigated. In all, between 250,000 and 1,000,000 people on both sides of the new borders died in the violence.[21] While the entire nation was celebrating the Independence Day, Gandhi stayed in Calcutta in an attempt to stem the carnage.[22] On 14 August 1947, the Independence Day of Pakistan, the new Dominion of Pakistan came into being; Muhammad Ali Jinnah was sworn in as its first Governor General in Karachi.

The Constituent Assembly of India met for its fifth session at 11 pm on 14 August in the Constitution Hall in New Delhi.[23] The session was chaired by the president Rajendra Prasad. In this session, Jawaharlal Nehru delivered the Tryst with Destiny speech proclaiming India's independence.

Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment, we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.

— Tryst with Destiny speech, Jawaharlal Nehru, 15 August 1947[24]

The members of the Assembly formally took the pledge of being in the service of the country. A group of women, representing the women of India, formally presented the national flag to the assembly.

The Dominion of India became an independent country as official ceremonies took place in New Delhi. Nehru assumed office as the first prime minister, and the viceroy, Lord Mountbatten, continued as its first governor general.[19]:6 Gandhi's name was invoked by crowds celebrating the occasion; Gandhi himself however took no part in the official events. Instead, he marked the day with a 24-hour fast, during which he spoke to a crowd in Calcutta, encouraging peace between Hindu and Muslim.[19]:10

Celebration[edit]

Independence Day, one of the three National holidays in India (the other two being the Republic Day on 26 January and Mahatma Gandhi's birthday on 2 October), is observed in all Indian states and union territories. On the eve of Independence Day, the President of India delivers the "Address to the Nation". On 15 August, the prime minister hoists the Indian flag on the ramparts of the historical site Red Fort in Delhi. Twenty-one gun shots are fired in honour of the solemn occasion.[25] In his speech, the prime minister highlights the past year's achievements, raises important issues and calls for further development. He pays tribute to the leaders of the Indian independence movement. The Indian national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana", is sung. The speech is followed by march past of divisions of the Indian Armed Forces and paramilitary forces. Parades and pageants showcase scenes from the independence struggle and India's diverse cultural traditions. Similar events take place in state capitals where the Chief Ministers of individual states unfurl the national flag, followed by parades and pageants.[26][27]

Flag hoisting ceremonies and cultural programmes take place in governmental and non-governmental institutions throughout the country.[28] Schools and colleges conduct flag hoisting ceremonies and cultural events. Major government buildings are often adorned with strings of lights.[29] In Delhi and some other cities, kite flying adds to the occasion.[25][30] National flags of different sizes are used abundantly to symbolise allegiance to the country.[31] Citizens adorn their clothing, wristbands, cars, household accessories with replicas of the tri-colour.[31] Over a period of time, the celebration has changed emphasis from nationalism to a broader celebration of all things India.[32][33]

The Indian diaspora celebrates Independence Day around the world with parades and pageants, particularly in regions with higher concentrations of Indian immigrants.[34] In some locations, such as New York and other US cities, 15 August has become "India Day" among the diaspora and the local populace. Pageants celebrate "India Day" either on 15 August or an adjoining weekend day.[35]

Security threats[edit]

As early as three years after independence, the Naga National Council called for a boycott of Independence Day in northeast India.[36] Separatist protests in this region intensified in the 1980s; calls for boycotts and terrorist attacks by insurgent organisations such as the United Liberation Front of Assam and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland, marred celebrations.[37] With increasing insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir from the late 1980s,[38] separatist protesters boycotted Independence Day there with bandh (strikes), use of black flags and by flag burning.[39][40][41] Terrorist outfits such as Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Hizbul Mujahideen and the Jaish-e-Mohammed have issued threats, and have carried out attacks around Independence Day.[42] Boycotting of the celebration has also been advocated by insurgent Maoist rebel organisations.[43][44]

In the anticipation of terrorist attacks, particularly from militants, security measures are intensified, especially in major cities such as Delhi and Mumbai and in troubled states such as Jammu and Kashmir.[45][46] The airspace around the Red Fort is declared a no-fly zone to prevent aerial attacks[47] and additional police forces are deployed in other cities.[48]

In popular culture[edit]

On Independence Day and Republic Day, patriotic songs in regional languages are broadcast on television and radio channels.[49] They are also played alongside flag hoisting ceremonies.[49] Patriotic films are broadcast.[28] Over the decades, according to The Times of India, the number of such films broadcast has decreased as channels report that audiences are oversaturated with patriotic films.[50] The population cohort that belong to the Generation Next often combine nationalism with popular culture during the celebrations. This mixture is exemplified by outfits and savouries dyed with the tricolour and designer garments that represent India's various cultural traditions.[32][51] Retail stores offer Independence Day sales promotions.[52][53] Some news reports have decried the commercialism.[52][54][55]Indian Postal Service publishes commemorative stamps depicting independence movement leaders, nationalistic themes and defence-related themes on 15 August.[56]

Independence and partition inspired literary and other artistic creations.[57] Such creations mostly describe the human cost of partition, limiting the holiday to a small part of their narrative.[58][59]Salman Rushdie's novel Midnight's Children (1980), which won the Booker Prize and the Booker of Bookers, wove its narrative around children born at midnight of 14–15 August 1947 with magical abilities.[59]Freedom at Midnight (1975) is a non-fiction work by Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre that chronicled the events surrounding the first Independence Day celebrations in 1947. Few films centre on the moment of independence,[60][61][62] instead highlighting the circumstances of partition and its aftermath.[60][63][64] On the Internet, Google has commemorated Independence Day since 2003 with a special doodle on its Indian homepage.[65]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^PTI (15 August 2013). "Manmohan first PM outside Nehru-Gandhi clan to hoist flag for 10th time"Archived 21 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. The Hindu. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  2. ^"Terror strike feared in Delhi ahead of Independence Day : MM-National, News – India Today". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 5 August 2015. Archived from the original on 7 August 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  3. ^"69th Independence Day: Security Tightened at Red Fort as Terror Threat Looms Large on PM Modi". Ibtimes.co.in. 28 February 2015. Archived from the original on 14 August 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  4. ^government, Sumit (1983). Modern India, 1885–1947. Macmillan. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-0-333-90425-1. 
  5. ^ abcdeMetcalf, B.; Metcalf, T. R. (9 October 2006). A Concise History of Modern India (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68225-1. 
  6. ^ abWolpert, Stanley A. (12 October 1999). India. University of California Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-520-22172-7. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  7. ^Datta, V. N. (2006). "India's Independence Pledge". In Gandhi, Kishore. India's Date with Destiny. Allied Publishers. pp. 34–39. ISBN 978-81-7764-932-1.  
  8. ^ abGuha, Ramachandra (12 August 2008). India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-06-095858-9. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2012. 
  9. ^Vohra, Ranbir (2001). The Making of India: a Historical Survey. M. E. Sharpe. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-7656-0711-9. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  10. ^Ramaseshan, Radhika (26 January 2012). "Why January 26: the History of the Day". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  11. ^Nehru, Jawaharlal (1989). Jawaharlal Nehru, An Autobiography: With Musings on Recent Events in India. Bodley Head. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-370-31313-9. Archived from the original on 26 June 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2012. 
  12. ^Gandhi, (Mahatma) (1970). Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. 42. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. pp. 398–400. Archived from the original on 26 June 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2012. 
  13. ^Hyam, Ronald (2006). Britain's Declining Empire: the Road to Decolonisation, 1918–1968. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-521-68555-9.  
  14. ^Brown, Judith Margaret (1994). Modern India: the Origins of an Asian Democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 330. ISBN 978-0-19-873112-2.  
  15. ^Sarkar, Sumit (1983). Modern India, 1885–1947. Macmillan. p. 418. ISBN 978-0-333-90425-1.  
  16. ^ abRomein, Jan (1962). The Asian Century: a History of Modern Nationalism in Asia. University of California Press. p. 357. ASIN B000PVLKY4. Archived from the original on 26 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  17. ^ abRead, Anthony; Fisher, David (1 July 1999). The Proudest Day: India's Long Road to Independence. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 459–60. ISBN 978-0-393-31898-2. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  18. ^"Indian Independence Act 1947". The National Archives, Her Majesty's Government. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  19. ^ abcGuha, Rama Chandra (2007). India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-01654-5. 
  20. ^Keay, John (2000). India: A History. Grove Press. p. 508. ISBN 9780802137975.  
  21. ^DeRouen, Karl; Heo, Uk (28 March 2007). Civil Wars of the World: Major Conflicts since World War II. ABC-CLIO. pp. 408–414. ISBN 978-1-85109-919-1. Archived from the original on 26 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  22. ^Alexander, Horace (1 August 2007). "A miracle in Calcutta". Prospect. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  23. ^"Constituent Assembly of India Volume V". Parliament of India. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  24. ^"Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964): Speech On the Granting of Indian Independence, August 14, 1947". Fordham University. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  25. ^ ab"Independence Day". Government of India. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  26. ^"India Celebrates Its 66th Independence Day". Outlook. 15 August 2012. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  27. ^"Barring Northeast, Peaceful I-Day Celebrations across India (State Roundup, Combining Different Series)". Monsters and Critics. 15 August 2007. Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  28. ^ abGupta, K. R.; Gupta, Amita (1 January 2006). Concise Encyclopaedia of India. Atlantic Publishers. p. 1002. ISBN 978-81-269-0639-0. Archived from the original on 26 June 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  29. ^"Independence Day Celebration". Government of India. Archived from the original on 15 December 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  30. ^Bhattacharya, Suryatapa (15 August 2011). "Indians Still Battling it out on Independence Day". The National. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  31. ^ ab"When India Wears its Badge of Patriotism with Pride". DNA. 15 August 2007. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012. 
  32. ^ abAnsari, Shabana (15 August 2011). "Independence Day: For GenNext, It's Cool to Flaunt Patriotism". DNA. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  33. ^Dutta Sachdeva, Sujata; Mathur, Neha (14 August 2005). "It's Cool to Be Patriotic: GenNow". The Times of India. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
Independence Day
Armenian: Հայաստանի Անկախության օրը
Observed by Armenia
TypeState
SignificanceThe day the Armenian SSR voted in a referendum in 1991 to gain independence from the USSR.
CelebrationsFireworks, Concerts, Parades
DateSeptember 21
Next time21 September 2018 (2018-09-21)
Frequencyannual

The Independence Day of Armenia (Armenian:Հայաստանի Անկախության օրը) is the main state holiday in Armenia. This date is celebrated on September 21.

History[edit]

On August 23, 1990, Supreme Council of adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Armenia proclaiming the Armenian SSR abolished and the establishment of the Republic of Armenia.[1] On September 21, 1991, the people of Armenia voted in a referendum to proclaim independence from the Soviet Union. Levon Ter-Petrosyan was elected the first president of Armenia in November 1991. On December 21, 1991, Armenia joined the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Armenia gained independence formally on December 26 in connection with the dissolution of the USSR.[2][3]

This is the second independence of Armenia. The first occurred on May 28, 1918 and led to the formation of the First Republic of Armenia. This republic was then taken over by the USSR in 1920.[4]

Celebrations[edit]

A concert is usually held in the capital Yerevan and every 5 years there is a Military parade in on Republic Square.

Independence Day military parade[edit]

Military parades celebrating the independence of Armenia have been held in Yerevan in 1992, 1996, 1999, 2006, 2011, and 2016.[5]

1996[edit]

The parade in 1996 ccelebrated the 5th anniversary of independence.[6]

1999[edit]

The 1999 parade that celebrated the 8th anniversary of independence was commanded by Major General Manvel Grigoryan and inspected by Lieutenant General Vagharshak Harutiunyan.

2006[edit]

2006 celebrated the 15th anniversary of Armenia's independence. The parade began with Defense Minister Serzh Sargsyan, and Chief of Staff Mikael Harutyunyan inspecting the troops congratulating them on the holiday[7][8]

2011[edit]

Armenia celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2011.[9][10][11] Inspecting the parade was Minister of Defence of ArmeniaSeyran Ohanyan, and the Chief of the General Staff Colonel General Yuri Khatchaturov.[12] A group representing the Russian Army's Base in Armenia took part in the parade alongside Armenian troops for the first time.[11]The Military Police, a Peacekeeping Brigade, Frontier Troops of the National Security Service, and Veterans of the Nagorno Karabakh Defense Army took part in the Parade.[11]

2016[edit]

Armenia's 25th anniversary parade in 2016 was the biggest celebration in Armenia's history.[13][14] Comanding the parade was Major General Andranik Magariyan,The commander of the 4th Army corps of the ground forces. More than 350,000 people were spectators and participants of the events. An international peace brigade from the United States, Germany, Italy, Poland and Greece took part in the parade.[15]

Foreign Contingents[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

0 thoughts on “Independence Day Essay Wikipedia Shqip”

    -->

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *