How To Add Appendices To An Essay

For a long time, the human appendix was mostly considered a health hazard waiting to happen.

But recent research has shown it does have a purpose, so perhaps it’s more like the appendices in an essay than we thought: not essential, but playing an important supporting role.

Not everyone knows how to use an appendix in academic writing, though, so we’ve prepared this handy guide.

What is an Appendix?

An appendix (plural: appendices) is a section at the end of a book or essay containing additional information. You should use it to cover data or details that aren’t essential to your work, but which could provide useful context or background material.

In the main body of your essay, you should indicate when you’re referring to an appendix by citing it in parentheses. For example:

The interviews show that most people like ice cream (see Appendix C for full transcripts).

What Should Go in the Appendices?

Appendices can include many things depending on your topic. Common examples of information added to an appendix include:

  • Raw data from tests
  • Technical figures, graphs or tables
  • Maps, charts or images
  • Letters or emails used in research
  • Sample questionnaires or surveys
  • Full interview transcripts

What these have in common is that you might need to refer to them in an essay without going into too much detail. For example, you might summarise the results of a test in the ‘Results’ section of a dissertation, then include the full data in appendices to ensure clarity.

How to Format Appendices

Exactly how to format appendices can vary between universities, so you should always check your style guide. Generally, though, appendices should:

  • Appear at the end of your document, often after the reference list
  • Be divided into sections depending on topic (e.g. separate sections for questionnaire results and interview transcripts), with each appendix starting on a new page
  • Be labelled with a letter or number, along with a title clarifying content (Appendix A: Instrument Diagrams, Appendix B: Test Results, etc.)
  • Appear in the table of contents at the beginning of your document

Are Appendices Included in the Word Count?

One big advantage of appendices is that they’re not usually included in the word count for an essay. As such, you can focus on the key information in your work and place additional information in an appendix without worrying about the word count.

However, this can vary, so you should always check your style guide on this. And remember that if you rely upon something in your main essay, it needs to be included there: you can’t just shuffle it into the appendices to reduce the word count!

How do I create an APPENDIX in APA style?


What is an appendix?

  • A section at the end of a paper that includes information that is too detailed for the text of the paper itself and would "burden the reader" or be "distracting," or "inappropriate" (APA, 2010, p. 38-9).
  • The content in the appendices should be "easily presented in print format" (APA, 2010, p. 39).
    • Examples:
      • lists of length (short lists belong in the paper itself)
      • detailed descriptions (essential details should be in the paper itself)
      • a list of articles that support data but are not referred to in the paper itself
      • demographic details for subpopulations studied by the paper



Where does the Appendix appear in the paper?

  • The appendices section, if there is one, is close to the last section of your APA-style paper:
    • title page
    • abstract
    • text of paper
    • references list
    • tables 
    • figures
    • appendices
    • footnotes (APA, 2010, p. 229-230). (Rarely used)



How to format an appendix:

  • You may have more than one appendix (aka appendices)
  • Each appendix should deal with a separate topic
  • Each appendix must be referred to by name (Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, etc.) in the text of the paper
    • To refer to the Appendix within your text, write, (see Appendix A) at the end of the sentence in parentheses. Example:
      • In addition to the limitations of email, Cummings et al. (2002) reviewed studies that focused on international bank employees and college students (see Appendix B for demographic information).
  • Each appendix must be labeled with a letter (A, B, C, etc.) according to where it appears in the paper.
      • The first appendix referred to in the paper would be named Appendix A
      • The second appendix referred to in the paper would be named Appendix B
      • If you have more than 26 appendices, start the alphabet over with AA, BB, CC, and so on.
      • If there is only one appendix, it is just called Appendix
  • Each appendix must also have a title
  • Begin each appendix on a separate page
  • Place the label and title of each appendix at the top of the page, centered, using normal capitalization. Label first, title second.
  • Paragraphs
    • The first paragraph is flush left and not indented.
    • The second and following paragraphs are indented as "normal" paragraphs are.
    • All paragraphs are double spaced.
  • If your appendices include tables or figures, treat them as they would be treated in the main text.
    • See the Abstracts and Appendices page of the APA Guide for more information.
    • Exception to the tables/figures numbering rule: add the letter of the appendix (A, B, C, etc.) to the figure or table number (e.g., Table B3 would be the third table in Appendix B).
  • If your appendices use information from an outside source, cite it parenthetically within the text of the appendix and include the reference in the main references list for the paper (do not create a separate references list).



A sample appendix is below.

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